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Compound K

Pharmacological effects of Ginsenoside Compound K

  1. Suppression of tumor cell proliferation and inflammation
  2. Cytotoxicity against some tumor cells
  3. Anti-carcinogenic and anti-cancer effects
  4. Anti-allergy effects
  5. Alleviation of Alzheimer`s disease
  6. Anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant factors
  7. Promotion of insulin secretion
  8. Hepato-protective and skin-protective effect

Clinical papers on Ginsenoside Compound K (www.pubmed.com – U.S. National Library Of Medicine, National Institute of Health)

  1. Induction of apoptosis by a novel intestinal metabolite of ginseng saponin via cytochrome c-mediated activation of caspase-3 protease.
    Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Sep 1; 60(5):677-85.
  2. Cytotoxicity of compound K (IH-901) and ginsenoside Rh2, main biotransformants of ginseng saponins by bifidobacteria, against some tumor cells. J. Ginseng Res. 27: 129-134 (2003)
  3. Anti-allergic activity of ginseng and its ginsenosides. Planta Med. 2003 69:518-22.
  4. Protective effect of fermented red ginseng on a transient focal ischemic rats. Arch Pharm Res. 2004 27:1136-40.
  5. Ab(25-35)-induced memory impairment, axonal atrophy, and synaptic loss are ameliorated by M1, A metabolite of protopanaxadiol-type saponins. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004 29:860-8.
  6. Antitumor promotional effects of a novel intestinal bacterial metabolite (IH-901) derived from the protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides in mouse skin. Carcinogenesis. 2005 26:359-67.
  7. Inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K on NO and prostaglandin E2 biosyntheses of RAW264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 28:652-6.
  8. Hepatoprotective effect of ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced liver injury. Liver Int. 2005 25:1069-73.
  9. Antipruritic effect of ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K in scratching behavior mouse models. J Pharmacol Sci. 2005 99:83-8.
  10. Effect of ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K in chronic oxazolone-induced mouse dermatitis. Int Immunopharmacol. 2005 5:1183-91.
  11. Ginseng saponin metabolite suppresses phorbol ester-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through inhibition of activator protein-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in human astroglioma cells. Int J Cancer. 2006 118:490-7.
  12. A ginsenoside metabolite, 20-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, triggers apoptosis in activated rat hepatic stellate cells via caspase-3 activation. Planta Med. 2006 72:1250-3.
  13. Effects of Compound K on Insulin Secretion and Carbohydrate Metabolism J. Ginseng Res. Vol. 31, No. 2, 79-85 (2007)
  14. Compound K (CK) Rich Fractions from Korean Red Ginseng Inhibit Toll-like Receptor (TLR) 4- or TLR9-mediated Mitogen-activated Protein Kinases Activation and Pro-inflammatory Responses in Murine Macrophages J. Ginseng Res.Vol. 31, No. 4, 181-190 (2007)
  15. Anti-diabetic effects of compound K versus metformin versus compound K-metformin combination therapy in diabetic db/db mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Nov;30(11):2196-200.