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Method of Producing Ginsenoside Rh2

This patented probiotic-enzymatic biotransformation technology describes a scientific method to produce active ginsenosides Rh2, Rg2 and F2 (metabolized ginsenosides) from ginseng root extracts using leuconostoc sp.

Pharmacological effects of Ginsenoside Rh2

  1. Prevention of tumor cell proliferation and differentiation
  2. Anti-inflammatory effect
  3. Anti-allergy effect
  4. Promotion of insulin secretion and improvement insulin sensitivity

Clinical papers on Ginsenoside Rh2 (www.pubmed.com – U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health

  1. Suppression of the Formation of Sister Chromatid Exchanges by Low.
    Concentrations of Ginsenoside Rh2 in Human Blood Lymphocytes.
    CANCER RESEARCH 55, 1221-1223, March 15, 1995
  2. Ginsenoside-Rh1 and Rh2 inhibit the induction of nitric oxide
    synthesis in murine peritoneal macrophages. Biochem Mol Biol Int.
    1996 Nov; 40(4):751-7.
  3. Modulation of protein kinase C activity in NIH 3T3 cells by plant
    glycosides from Panax ginseng. Planta Med. 1997; 63:389-392.
  4. Ginsenoside Rh2 and Rh3 induce differentiation of HL-60 cells into
    granulocytes: modulation of protein kinase C isoforms during
    differentiation by ginsenoside Rh2. The International Journal of
    Biochemistry & Cell Biology Vol. Issue 3, 1 March 1998, 327-338
  5. Anti-invasive activity of ginsenoside Rh1 and Rh2 in the HT 1080
    cells. J. Ginseng Res., 22, 216-221 (1998).
  6. Ginsenoside-Rh2 significantly inhibited MCF-7 cells growth in a
    concentration-dependent manner, which affect was reversible, and
    induced a G1 arrest in cell cycle progression. Int J Oncol. 1999
    May; 14(5):869-75
  7. Anti-proliferating effects of ginsenoside Rh2 on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 1999 May; 14(5):869-75.
  8. Ginsenoside Rh2 induces apoptosis independently of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL,or Bax in C6Bu-1 cells. Arch Pharm Res. 1999 Oct; 22(5):448-53.
  9. Differential expression of protein kinase C subtypes during ginsenoside Rh2-lnduced apoptosis in SK-N-BE(2) and C6Bu-1 cells.Arch Pharm Res. 2000 Oct; 23(5):518-24.
  10. Anticarcinogenic effect of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and identification of active compounds. J Korean Med Sci. 2001 Dec; 16 Suppl:S6-18.
  11. Cytotoxicity of Compound K (IH-901) and Ginsenoside Rh2, Main Biotransformants of Ginseng Saponins by Bifidobacteria, against Some Tumor Cells. J. Ginseng Res.Vol. 27, No. 3, 129-134(2003)
  12. Antiallergic activity of ginsenoside Rh2. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Nov; 26(11):1581-4.
  13. Ginsenoside Rh2 Reduces Ischemic Brain Injury in Rats. Biol Pharm
    Bull. 2004 Mar; 27(3):433-6
  14. Gensenoside-Rh2 inhibited cell growth by GI arrest at low concentrations and induced apoptosis at high con-centrations in a variety of tumor cell lines. Rh2 can act either additively or synergistically with chemotherapy drugs (paclitaxel) on cancer cells. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 82:431-437 (2004)
  15. Ginsenosides 20(S)-protopanaxadiol and Rh2 reduce cell proliferation and increase sub-G1 cells in two cultured intestinal cell lines, Int-407 and Caco-2. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2004 Mar; 82(3):183-90
  16. Ginsenoside Rh2 induces apoptosis via activation of caspase-1 and -3 and up-regulation of Bax in human neuroblastoma. Arch Pharm Res. 2004 Aug; 27(8):834-9.
  17. Uptake and Metabolism of Ginsenoside Rh2 and Its Aglycon Protopanaxadiol by Caco-2 Cells. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin Vol. 28 (2005) , No. 2 383
  18. Ginsenoside-Rh2-Induced Mitochondrial Depolarization and Apoptosis Are Associated with Reactive Oxygen Species- and Ca2+-Mediated c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase 1 Activation in HeLa Cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Dec; 319(3):1276-85. Epub 2006 Sep 14.
  19. Among ginsenosides, metabolites PPD, Rh2 and PPT were inhibitors of BCRP (ABC transporters : overex-pression is shown to confer resistance against various clinically relevant compounds).
  20. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 345 (2006) 1308-1314
  21. Increase of insulin secretion by ginsenoside Rh2 to lower plasma glucose in Wistar rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006 Jan-Feb;33(1-2):27-32
  22. Inhibitory effects of Korean red ginseng and its genuine constituents ginsenosides
    Rg3, Rf, and Rh2 in mouse passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction and contact dermatitis models. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Sep;29(9):1862-7.
  23. Anti-obesity effects of ginsenoside Rh2 are associated with the activation of AMPK signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocyte.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 364 (2007) 1002-1008
  24. Ginsenoside Rh2 is one of the active principles of Panax ginseng root to improve insulin sensitivity in fructose-rich chow-fed rats. Horm Metab Res. 2007 May;39(5):347-54.