Pharmacological effects of Ginsenoside Rh2
- Prevention of tumor cell proliferation and differentiation
- Anti-inflammatory effect
- Anti-allergy effect
- Promotion of insulin secretion and improvement insulin sensitivity
Clinical papers on Ginsenoside Rh2 (www.pubmed.com – U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health
- Suppression of the Formation of Sister Chromatid Exchanges by Low.
Concentrations of Ginsenoside Rh2 in Human Blood Lymphocytes.
CANCER RESEARCH 55, 1221-1223, March 15, 1995
- Ginsenoside-Rh1 and Rh2 inhibit the induction of nitric oxide
synthesis in murine peritoneal macrophages. Biochem Mol Biol Int.
1996 Nov; 40(4):751-7.
- Modulation of protein kinase C activity in NIH 3T3 cells by plant
glycosides from Panax ginseng. Planta Med. 1997; 63:389-392.
- Ginsenoside Rh2 and Rh3 induce differentiation of HL-60 cells into
granulocytes: modulation of protein kinase C isoforms during
differentiation by ginsenoside Rh2. The International Journal of
Biochemistry & Cell Biology Vol. Issue 3, 1 March 1998, 327-338
- Anti-invasive activity of ginsenoside Rh1 and Rh2 in the HT 1080
cells. J. Ginseng Res., 22, 216-221 (1998).
- Ginsenoside-Rh2 significantly inhibited MCF-7 cells growth in a
concentration-dependent manner, which affect was reversible, and
induced a G1 arrest in cell cycle progression. Int J Oncol. 1999
- Anti-proliferating effects of ginsenoside Rh2 on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 1999 May; 14(5):869-75.
- Ginsenoside Rh2 induces apoptosis independently of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL,or Bax in C6Bu-1 cells. Arch Pharm Res. 1999 Oct; 22(5):448-53.
- Differential expression of protein kinase C subtypes during ginsenoside Rh2-lnduced apoptosis in SK-N-BE(2) and C6Bu-1 cells.Arch Pharm Res. 2000 Oct; 23(5):518-24.
- Anticarcinogenic effect of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and identification of active compounds. J Korean Med Sci. 2001 Dec; 16 Suppl:S6-18.
- Cytotoxicity of Compound K (IH-901) and Ginsenoside Rh2, Main Biotransformants of Ginseng Saponins by Bifidobacteria, against Some Tumor Cells. J. Ginseng Res.Vol. 27, No. 3, 129-134(2003)
- Antiallergic activity of ginsenoside Rh2. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Nov; 26(11):1581-4.
- Ginsenoside Rh2 Reduces Ischemic Brain Injury in Rats. Biol Pharm
Bull. 2004 Mar; 27(3):433-6
- Gensenoside-Rh2 inhibited cell growth by GI arrest at low concentrations and induced apoptosis at high con-centrations in a variety of tumor cell lines. Rh2 can act either additively or synergistically with chemotherapy drugs (paclitaxel) on cancer cells. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 82:431-437 (2004)
- Ginsenosides 20(S)-protopanaxadiol and Rh2 reduce cell proliferation and increase sub-G1 cells in two cultured intestinal cell lines, Int-407 and Caco-2. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2004 Mar; 82(3):183-90
- Ginsenoside Rh2 induces apoptosis via activation of caspase-1 and -3 and up-regulation of Bax in human neuroblastoma. Arch Pharm Res. 2004 Aug; 27(8):834-9.
- Uptake and Metabolism of Ginsenoside Rh2 and Its Aglycon Protopanaxadiol by Caco-2 Cells. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin Vol. 28 (2005) , No. 2 383
- Ginsenoside-Rh2-Induced Mitochondrial Depolarization and Apoptosis Are Associated with Reactive Oxygen Species- and Ca2+-Mediated c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase 1 Activation in HeLa Cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Dec; 319(3):1276-85. Epub 2006 Sep 14.
- Among ginsenosides, metabolites PPD, Rh2 and PPT were inhibitors of BCRP (ABC transporters : overex-pression is shown to confer resistance against various clinically relevant compounds).
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 345 (2006) 1308-1314
- Increase of insulin secretion by ginsenoside Rh2 to lower plasma glucose in Wistar rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006 Jan-Feb;33(1-2):27-32
- Inhibitory effects of Korean red ginseng and its genuine constituents ginsenosides
Rg3, Rf, and Rh2 in mouse passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction and contact dermatitis models. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Sep;29(9):1862-7.
- Anti-obesity effects of ginsenoside Rh2 are associated with the activation of AMPK signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocyte.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 364 (2007) 1002-1008
- Ginsenoside Rh2 is one of the active principles of Panax ginseng root to improve insulin sensitivity in fructose-rich chow-fed rats. Horm Metab Res. 2007 May;39(5):347-54.